For a general bibliography on Banaras please consult the 

Banaras Bibliography (Jörg Gengnagel & Axel Michaels, updated April 2006)

References 
Compiled
by Jörg Gengnagel. Updated October 2005  

Sources

KKh
KÁĐÍkhaĆŐa˝ MaharŇivyÁsapraĆita˝ RÁmÁnandapraĆitayÁ „RÁmÁnandÍ“ vyÁkhyayÁ; NÁrÁyaĆapatitripÁÔhÍpraĆitayÁ „NÁrÁyaĆÍ“, KaruĆÁpati TripÁÔhÍ (ed.), 4 vol.s. Varanasi: Sampurnand Sanskrit University, 1991; 1992; 1996; 1998.

KR
KÁĐÍrahasyam, BrahmavaivartapurÁĆapariĐiŇÔam saÔÍkam kÁĐÍrahasyam, RÁdhÁkŞŇĆa Mor (ed.), GurumaƱalagranthamÁlÁ No. 14, Vol. 3, Calcutta: 1957.

TSS
TristhalÍsetu of NÁrÁyaĆa BhaÔÔa. GaĆeĐa ĎÁstrÍ Gokhale (ed.), Poona: ŔnandÁĐramamudraĆÁlaya, 1915 (ŔnandÁĐrama Sanskrit Series 78).

TVK
TÍrthavivecanakÁƱa 1942, in: BhaÔÔaĐrÍlaksŢÍdharaviracite KŞtyakalpatarau aŇÔamo bhÁga K.V. Rangaswami Aiyangar (ed.), Baroda (Gaekwad´s Oriental Series 98).

PKV
PańcakroĐÍvidhÁna. [Manuscript,16 pages with 20/21 lines each, DevanÁgarÍ script, not dated, bound, title on cover, private collection of Shashank Singh, VÁrÁĆasÍ.]

SP
The SkandapurÁĆa. Volume I. AdhyÁyas 1–25. Critically edited with a Prolegomena and English Synopsis. Adriaensen, R., H.T. Bakker & H. Isaacson (eds.). Groningen: 1998.  

The SkandapurÁĆa. Volume IIA. AdhyÁyas 26–31.14. The VÁrÁĆasÍ Cycle. Critical Edition with an Introduction, English Synopsis & Philological and Historical Commentary.  H. T. Bakker & H. Isaacson (eds.). Groningen: 2004.  

 

Secondary Literature

Bahura, Gopal Narayan & Chandramani Singh. 1990. Catalogue of Historical Documents in Kapad Dwara, Jaipur. Part II: Maps and Plans. Jaipur.

Bakker, Hans (ed.). 1990. The history of sacred places in India as reflected in traditional literature: papers on pilgrimage in South Asia. Leiden: Brill. (Panels of the VIIth World Sanskrit Conference 3).

Bakker, Hans. 1996. Construction and Reconstruction of Sacred Space in VÁrÁĆasÍ. Numen XLIII.1: 32-55.

Crampton, Jeremy W. 2001. Maps as social constructions: power, communication and visualization. Progress in Human Geography 25,2: 235–252.

Eck, Diana. 1998. The imagined landscape: Patterns in the construction of Hindu sacred geography. Contributions to Indian sociology (n.s.) 32,2: 165-188.

Edney, Matthew H. 1997. Mapping an empire: the geographical construction of British India, 1765–1843.
Chicago & London.

Gengnagel, Jörg. 2000. Visualisierung religiöser Räume – Zur Kartographie von Benares. In: Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria & F. Stolz (eds.) 2000. Bern: 217–234.

Gengnagel, Jörg. 2003. Mapping Sacred Spaces – Aspects of Cartography in 19th Century Banaras. In: Dickhardt, Michael & Vera Dorofeeva-Lichtman (eds.) Creating and Representing Sacred Spaces (Göttinger Beiträge zur Asienforschung 2–3, Special double issue), Göttingen: Peust & Gutschmidt: 247–63.

Gengnagel, Jörg. 2005. KÁĐÍkhaĆŐokta: On texts and processions in VÁrÁĆasÍ. In: Gengnagel, Jörg & Srilata Raman & Ute Hüsken (eds.) Words and Deeds. Hindu and Buddhist Rituals in South Asia. Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz (Ethno-Indology. Heidelberg Studies in South Asian Rituals 1): 24763. 

Gole, Susan. 1989. Indian Maps and Plans: From Earliest Times to the Advent of European Surveys. New Delhi.

Gordon, B. L. 1970. Sacred Directions, Orientation, and the Top of the Map. History of Religions 10: 211–27.

Gutschow, Niels. 1994. VÁrÁĆasÍ/Benares: The centre of hinduism? A discussion of the meaning of 'place' and 'space'.
Erdkunde 48: 194–209.

Gutschow, Niels 1999: Pilgrimage and Space: The definatory purpose of pilgrimage routes (Case Studies from Bhaktapur, Kag and Muktinath (Nepal) and Varanasi). Contribution for the Conference "Pilgrimage and Complexity" at Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts in New Delhi, 5-9 January 1999.

Gutschow, Niels & Axel Michaels. 1993. Benares: Tempel und religiöses Leben in der heiligen Stadt der Hindus. Köln: Dumont Buchverlag.

Harley, J. B. 1988. Maps, Knowledge, and Power. In: Denis Cosgrove & Stephen Daniels (eds.) The Iconography of Landscape. Essays on the Symbolic representation, design and use of past environments. Cambridge: 277–312.

Harley, J. B 1992. Deconstructing the map. In: Barnes, T. J. & Duncan, J.S. (eds.), Writing worlds: discourse, text and metaphor in the representation of landscape, London: Routledge, 231
47.

Hirsch, E. & M. O'Hanlon (eds.). 1995. The Anthropology of Landscape. Perspectives on Place and Space. Oxford.

Kale, D.V. 1948. Maps and Charts in Bharata Itihasa Samsodhaka Mandala.
In Bharata Itihasa Samsodhaka Mandala Quarterly. Pune: 60–65.

Lannoy, Richard. 1999. Benares seen from within. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Lippe, Rudolf zur. 1987. Das Heilige und der Raum. In: Kamper, D. & Ch. Wulf (eds.) Das Heilige: Seine Spur in der Moderne. Frankfurt a.M.: 413–427.

Madan, P. L. 1997. Indian Cartography. A Historical Perspective. New Delhi.

Michaels, Axel. 2000. Konstruktionen von Translokalität und Zentralität. Eine religiöse Karte von Benares. In: Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria & F. Stolz (ed.s) 2000. Bern: 187–216.  

Michaels, Axel 2003. TÍrtha. Orte der Transzendenz in hinduistischen Texten, Ritualen und Karten. In: Oberhammer, G. & Marcus Schmücker (eds.) Mythisierung der Transzendenz als Entwurf  ihrer Erfahrung. Wien, Verlag der Österreich. Akademie: 349–79.

Pearce, Margaret W. 2003. Exploring Human Geography with Maps. New York, W. H. Freeman and Company. (see Maps of Pilgrims, chap. 3.3 with interactive exercises based on the Mirror of Kashi). 

Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria & F. Stolz (eds.). 2000. Religiöse Kartographie. Organisation, Darstellung und Symbolik des Raumes in religiösen Symbolsystemen. Bern

Phillimore, R. H. 1952. Three Indian Maps. In: Imago Mundi 9: 111–114.

Pieper, Jan 1979. A pilgrim's map of Benares: Notes on codification in Hindu cartography.
GeoJournal (Dordrecht) 3.2: 215-218.

Schwartzberg, Joseph E. 1992: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies. In: The History of Cartography, Vol. II.1, J.B. Harley & D. Woodward (eds.). Chicago: 295–579.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1987. The Pilgrimage Mandala of Varanasi/Kashi: A Study in Sacred Geography. The National Geographical Journal of India 33: 493-524.

Singh, Rana P. B. (ed.). 1993. Banaras (Varanasi): Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1998. Sacred Journey and Faithscape: An experience of the Panchakroshi Pilgrimage, Varanasi (India), in The Pennsylvania Geographer 36.1: 55-91.

Sukul, KubernÁth. 1977: VÁrÁĆasÍ Vaibhav.
Patna.

Raj, Kapil. 2003. Circulation and the Emergence of Modern Mapping: Great Britain and Early Colonial India, 1764–1820. In: Markovits, Claude & Jacques Pouchepadass & Sanjay Subrahmanyam (eds.) Society and Circulation. Mobile People and Itinerant Cultures in South Asia 1750–1950: 23–53.

Tagare, G. V. 1996, 1997. Skanda-PurÁĆa. Translated and annotated by G.V. Tagare, Book IV: KÁĐi-KhaƱa, 2 vol.s, Delhi: Motilal, 1996; 1997 (Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series 58, 59).

Vatsyayan, K. (ed.). 1991: Concepts of Space: Ancient and Modern. New Delhi.

VyÁs, KedarnÁth 1987: PańcakoĐÁtmaka jyotirliÉga kÁĐÍmÁhÁtmya evaŢ kÁĐÍ kÁ prÁcÍn itihÁs.
Varanasi.

Warnke, Martin. 1998. 'Et mundus, hoc est homo'. Von einer sehr alten, nun wieder virtuellen Weltkarte. Zeitschrift für Semiotik 20, 1–2: 119–132.